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Publications

Partial lists of my my publications can be found in the research information system of HoGent and UGent. A list of my publications is also available on Google Scholar. Below a more complete list can be found.

Journal Articles

Beyond documentation – the digital philology of interaction heritage
Marc Leman and Joren Six
(2018) Journal of New Music Research (JNMR), Special edition on Digital Philology
PDF – Author preprint | BibTeX

A case for reproducibility in MIR. Replication of ‘a highly robust audio fingerprinting system’
Joren Six, Federica Bressan and Marc Leman
(2018) Transactions of the International Society for Music Information Retrieval
PDF – Author preprint | BibTeX

Adopting a music-to-heart rate alignment strategy to measure the impact of music and music tempo on human heart rate
Edith Van Dyck, Joren Six , Esin Soyer, Marlies Denys, Ilka Bardijn, and Marc Leman
(2017) Musicae Scientiae
PDF – Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Acoustical properties in Inhaling Singing: a case-study
Françoise Vanhecke, Mieke Moerman, Frank Desmet, Joren Six, Kristin Daemers, Godfried-Willem Raes, Marc Leman
(2017) Physics in Medicine
Version of Record | BibTeX

Synchronizing Multimodal Recordings Using Audio-To-Audio Alignment
Joren Six and Marc Leman
(2015) Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces
PDF – Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Tarsos, a modular platform for precise pitch analysis of western and non-western music
Joren Six, Olmo Cornelis and Marc Leman
(2013) Journal of New Music Research. 42(2). p.113-129
PDF – Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Evaluation and Recommendation of Pulse and Tempo Annotation in Ethnic Music
Olmo Cornelis, Joren Six, Andre Holzapfel, and Marc Leman
(2013) Journal of New Music Research. 42(2). p.131-149
PDF – Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Papers and Abstracts in Peer Reviewed Conference Proceedings

Applications of Duplicate Detection in Music Archives: from Metadata Comparison to Storage Optimisation
Joren Six, Federica Bressan and Marc Leman
(2018) Proceedings of the 14th Italian Research Conference on Digital Libraries (IRCDL 2018)
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Applications of duplicate detection: linking meta-data and merging music archives – The experience of the IPEM historical archive of electronic music
Federica Bressan, Joren Six and Marc Leman
(2017) Proceedings of the 4th International Digital Libraries for Musicology workshop (DLfM 2017)
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

MIRchiving: Challenges and opportunities of connecting MIR research and digital music archives
Reinier de Valk, Anja Volk, Andre Holzapfel, Aggelos Pikrakis, Nadine Kroher, Joren Six
(2017) Proceedings of the 4th International Digital Libraries for Musicology workshop (DLfM 2017)
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Regularity and asynchrony when tapping to tactile, auditory and combined pulses
Joren Six, Laura Arens, Hade Demoor, Thomas Kint and Marc Leman
(2017) Proceedings of the ESCOM conference
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Multimodal analysis of synchronization data from patients with dementia
Frank Desmet , Micheline Lesaffre, Joren Six, Nathalie Ehrlé, Séverine Samson
(2017) Proceedings of the ESCOM conference
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

A framework to provide fine-grained time-dependent context for active listening experiences
Joren Six and Marc Leman
(2017) Proceedings of AES Conference on Semantic Audio 2017
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Music and Movement Synchronization in People with Dementia
Matthieu Ghilain, Loris Schiaratura, Micheline Lesaffre, Joren Six, Frank Desmet, Séverine Samson
Conference website | PDF

The relaxing effect of tempo on music-aroused heart rate
Edith Van Dyck, Joren Six
(2016) Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC 14)
PDF | BibTeX

The Deep History of Music Project
Armand Leroi, Matthias Mauch, Pat Savage, Emmanoul Benetos, Juan Bello, Maria Pantelli, Joren Six, Tillman Weyde
(2015) Proceedings of the 5th International Folk Music Analysis Workshop (FMA 2015)
PDF | BibTeX

Panako – A Scalable Acoustic Fingerprinting System Handling Time-Scale and Pitch Modification
Joren Six and Marc Leman
(2014) Proceedings of the 15th ISMIR Conference (ISMIR 2014)
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

TarsosDSP, a Real-Time Audio Processing Framework in Java
Joren Six, Olmo Cornelis and Marc Leman
(2014) Proceedings of the 53rd AES Conference (AES 53rd)
Author version | Version of Record | BibTeX

Computer Assisted Transcription of Ethnic Music
Joren Six and Olmo Cornelis
(2013) Proceedings of the 2013 Folk Music Analysis Conference (FMA 2013)
PDF | BibTeX

Revealing and Listening to Scales from the Past; Tone Scale Analysis of Archived Central-African Music Using Computational Means
Olmo Cornelis and Joren Six
(2012) Proceedings of the 2012 Conference for Interdisciplinary Musicology (CIM 2012)
PDF | BibTeX

Sound to scale to sound, a setup for microtonal exploration and composition
Olmo Cornelis and Joren Six
(2012) Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC 2012)
PDF | BibTeX

A Robust Audio Fingerprinter Based on Pitch Class Histograms: Applications for Ethnic Music Archives
Joren Six and Olmo Cornelis
(2012) Proceedings of the International Workshop of Folk Music Analysis (FMA 2012)
PDF | BibTeX

Towards the Tangible: Mircotonal Scale Exploration in Central-African Music
Olmo Cornelis and Joren Six
(2012) Proceedings Analytical Aproaches to World Music Conference (AAWM 2012)
PDF | BibTeX

Tarsos – a Platform to Explore Pitch Scales in Non-Western and Western Music
Joren Six and Olmo Cornelis
(2011) Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR 2011)
PDF | BibTeX

Peachnote Piano: Making MIDI instruments social and smart using Arduino, Android and Node.js
Joren Six, Vladimir Viro
(2011) Demo Sessions of the 12th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2011)
PDF | BibTeX

Master’s Thesis

Collaborative Filtering: Onderzoek & implementatie
Greet Dolvelde, Joren Six
(2008) Master’s Thesis
PDF | BibTeX

Presentations, Discussions Guest Lectures, by Invitation

Panel discussion, 2012: Technological challenges for the computational modelling of the world’s musical heritage, Folk Music Analysis Conference 2012 – FMA 2012, organizers: Polina Proutskova and Emilia Gomez, Seville, Spain

Guest lecture, 2012: Non-western music and digital humanities, for: “Studies in Western Music History: Quantitative and Computational Approaches to Music History”, M.I.T., Boston, U.S.

Guest lecture, 2011: Presenting Tarsos, a software platform for pitch analysis. At: Electrical and Electronics Eng.Dept. IYTE, Izmir, Turkey

Workshop 2017:Computational Ethnomusicology – Methodologies for a new field Leiden, The Netherlands

Guest presentation 2018:Acoustic fingerprinting in research SoundCloud Ltd., Berlin, Germany

Experience as Lecturer

A002301 (2016-2017) “Grondslagen van de muzikale acoustica en sonologie” – Theory and Practice sessions together with dr. Pieter-Jan Maes

A002301 (2017-2018) “Grondslagen van de muzikale acoustica en sonologie” – Theory and Practice sessions together with dr. Pieter-Jan Maes

Other Output

See the software page



~ MIR Meetup Berlin - Acoustic Fingerprinting in Research

I was kindly invited by SoundCloud to give a presentation on “Acoustic fingerprinting in research”. The presentation took place during one of the “MIR Meetups” in Berlin on Monday, April 23, 2018. Before my presentation there was a presentation by Derek and Josh (both SoundCloud engineers) detailing the state of the internal fingerprinting system of SoundCloud.

During my presentation I gave an overview of various applications of acoustic fingerprinting in a music research environment and detailed how these applications can be handled and are implemented in Panako: an open source fingerprinting system

Below the slides used during the presentation can be found:


~ Engineering systematic musicology

The 11th of January I successfully completed my PhD training under mentorship of Marc Leman with a public defense at de Krook in Ghent.

I also handed in my dissertation titled Engineering systematic musicology: methods and services for computational and empirical music research (version of record). The dissertation bundles several of my publications and places them in a framework in the introduction and reflects upon these in the conclusion. The publications all contribute either directly to the field of systematic musicology (e.g. tone scale research) or contributes indirectly by facilitating specific research tasks (e.g. synchronization of multi-modal research data).

The presentation during my defense was meant for a broader audience. During the presentation I gave examples of the research topics I have been working and focused on how these are connected. The presentation titled Engineering systematic musicology can be seen by following the previous link and is included below. The slide with the live spectrogram and the slide with the map need to be started by double clicking otherwise they remain empty.

The presentation is essentially an interactive HTML5 website build with the reveal.js framework. This has the advantage that multimedia is well supported and all kinds of interactions can be scripted. The presentation above, for example, uses the web audio API for live audio visualization and the google maps API for interactive maps. Video integration is also seamless. It would be a struggle to achieve similar multi-media heavy presentations with other presentation software packages such as Impress, Keynote or Powerpoint.


~ IRCDL 2018 - Applications of Duplicate Detection in Music Archives: from Metadata Comparison to Storage Optimisation

Together with Federica Bressan I have contributed to the Italian Research Conference on Digital Libraries 2018:

“Since 2005, the Italian Research Conference on Digital Libraries has served as an important national forum focused on digital libraries and associated technical, practical, and social issues. IRCDL encompasses the many meanings of the term “digital libraries”, including new forms of information institutions; operational information systems with all manner of digital content; new means of selecting, collecting, organizing, and distributing digital content…"

The 26th of January Federica presented our joint contribution titled “Applications of Duplicate Detection in Music Archives: from Metadata Comparison to Storage Optimisation”. The work focuses on applications of duplicate detection for managing digital music archives. It aims to make this mature music information retrieval (MIR) technology better known to archivists and provide clear suggestions on how this technology can be used in practice. More specifically applications are discussed to complement meta-data, to link or merge digital music archives, to improve listening experiences and to re-use segmentation data.

The version of record of the article and an author version are available. The presentation is available here as well.


~ International Symposium on Computational Ethnomusicological Archiving

This weekend the University Hamburg – Institute for Systematic Musicology and more specifically Christian D. Koehn organized the International Symposium on Computational Ethnomusicological Archiving. The symposium featured a broad selection of research topics (physical modelling of instruments, MIR research, 3D scanning techniques, technology for (re)spacialisation of music, library sciences) which all had a relation with archiving musics of the world:

How could existing digital technologies in the field of music information retrieval, artificial intelligence, and data networking be efficiently implemented with regard to digital music archives? How might current and future developments in these fields benefit researchers in ethnomusicology? How can analytical data about musical sound and descriptive data about musical culture be more comprehensively integrated?

I was able to attend the symposium and contributed with a talk titled Challenges and opportunities for computational analysis of wax cylinders and by chairing a panel discussion. The symposium was kindly sponsored by the VolkswagenStiftung. The talk had the following abstract:

In this presentation we describe our experience of working with computational analysis on digitized wax cylinder recordings. The audio quality of these recordings is limited which poses challenges for standard MIR tools. Unclear recording and playback speeds further hinder some types of audio analysis. Moreover, due to a lack of systematical meta-data notation it is often uncertain where a single recording originates or when exactly it was recorded. However, being the oldest available sound recordings, they are invaluable witnesses of various musical practices and they are opportunities to improve the understanding of these practices. Next to sketching these general concerns, we present results of the analysis of pitch content of 400 wax cylinder recordings from Indiana University (USA) and from the Royal Museum from Central Africa (Belgium). The scales of the 400 recordings are mapped and analyzed as a set. It is found that the fifth is almost always present and that scales with four and five pitch classes are organized similarly and differ from those with six and seven pitch classes, latter center around intervals of 170 cents, and former around 240 cents.


~ 4th International Digital Libraries for Musicology workshop (DLfM 2017)

DLFM logoI have contributed to the 4th International Digital Libraries for Musicology workshop (DLfM 2017) which was organized in Shanghai, China. It was a satellite event of the ISMIR 2017 conference. Unfortunately I did not mange to find funding to attend the workshop, I did however contribute as co-author to two proceeding papers. Both were presented by Reinier de Valk (thanks again).

MIRchiving: Challenges and opportunities of connecting MIR research and digital music archives

By Reinier de Valk (DANS), Anja Volk (Utrecht University), Andre Holzapfel (KTH Royal Institute of Technology) , Aggelos Pikrakis (University of Piraeus), Nadine Kroher (University of Seville – IMUS) and Joren Six (Ghent University – IPEM). Next to the version of record there is also an author version available of the contribution titled MIRchiving: Challenges and opportunities of connecting MIR research and digital music archives.

This study is a call for action for the music information retrieval (MIR) community to pay more attention to collaboration with digital music archives. The study, which resulted from an interdisciplinary workshop and subsequent discussion, matches the demand for MIR technologies from various archives with what is already supplied by the MIR community. We conclude that the expressed demands can only be served sustainably through closer collaborations. Whereas MIR systems are described in scientific publications, usable implementations are often absent. If there is a runnable system, user documentation is often sparse—-posing a huge hurdle for archivists to employ it. This study sheds light on the current limitations and opportunities of MIR research in the context of music archives by means of examples, and highlights available tools. As a basic guideline for collaboration, we propose to interpret MIR research as part of a value chain. We identify the following benefits of collaboration between MIR researchers and music archives: new perspectives for content access in archives, more diverse evaluation data and methods, and a more application-oriented MIR research workflow.

Applications of duplicate detection: linking meta-data and merging music archives: The experience of the IPEM historical archive of electronic music

By Federica Bressan, Joren Six and Marc Leman (Ghent University – IPEM). Next to the version of record there is also an author version available of the contribution titled Applications of duplicate detection: linking meta-data and merging music archives: The experience of the IPEM historical archive of electronic music.

This work focuses on applications of duplicate detection for managing digital music archives. It aims to make this mature music information retrieval (MIR) technology better known to archivists and provide clear suggestions on how this technology can be used in practice. More specifically applications are discussed to complement meta-data, to link or merge digital music archives, to improve listening experiences and to re-use segmentation data. The IPEM archive, a digitized music archive containing early electronic music, provides a case study.

The full DLfM 2017 proceedings are published by ACM.


~ ESCOM 2017 - Regularity and asynchrony when tapping to tactile, auditory and combined pulses

ESCOM 2017 LogoThe 25th anniversary edition of the ESCOM 2017 Conference conference was organised in August 2017 by the IPEM research group from Ghent University. ESCOM is the conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music had two contributions to the conference.

The first was a collaboration with Frank Desmet, Micheline Lesaffre, Nathalie Ehrlé and Séverine Samson. The contribution is titled Multimodal Analysis of Synchronization Data from Patients with Dementia. It details a famework to analyze data in an experiment for patients with dementia.

For the second contribution I was the main researcher. It is the result of a project with students of the systematic musicology course at Ghent University (Laura Arens, Hade Demoor, Thomas Kint) . The contribution is called Regularity and asynchrony when tapping to tactile, auditory and combined pulses

The presentation details a multi sensory tapping task with the aim to develop an assistive technology for dancers.


~ Real-time signal synchronization with acoustic fingerprinting - A Master's Thesis By Ward Van Assche

During the last semester Ward wrote a Masters thesis titled Real-time signal synchronization with acoustic fingerprinting. For his thesis Marleen Denert and I served both as promoter.

The aim of the thesis was to design and develop a system to automatically synchronize streams of incoming sensor data in real-time. Ward followed up on an idea that was described in an article called Synchronizing Multimodal Recordings Using Audio-To-Audio Alignment. The extended abstract can be consulted. The remainder of the thesis is in Dutch.

For the thesis Ward developed a Max/MSP object to read data from sensors together with audio. Also provided by Ward is an object to synchronize audio and data in real-time. The objects are depicted above.


~ Connecting Musical Modules - Musical Hardware and Software Interfaces

Axoloti logo I have given a presentation at the the Newline conference, a yearly event organized by the Hackerspace Ghent. It was about:

“In this talk I will give a practical overview on how to connect hard- and software components for musical applications. Next to an overview there will be demos! Do you want to make a musical instrument using a light sensor? Use your smartphone as an input device for a synth? Or are you simply interested in simple low-latency communication between devices? Come to this talk! More concretely the talk will feature the Axoloti audio board, Teensy micro-controller with audio board, MIDI and OSC protocols, Android MIDI features and some sensors.”

During the presentation the hard and software components were demonstrated. More concretely an introduction was given to the following:

The presentation about DIY musical modules can be downloaded here.


~ Lecture on MIR - Tone Scale Extraction - Acoustic Fingerprinting

This morning, the 30th of October 2015, I gave a lecture on Music Information Retrieval in general and two MIR-tasks in particular. The two more detailed tasks were tone scale analysis and acoustic fingerprinting.

A slide

During the lecture some live demonstrations were done with Panako and Tarsos. Also some examples from TarsosDSP were used. Excerpts of the music used is available here, this is especially interesting if you want to repeat the demos. Sonic visualizer, Music21 and MuseScore were also mentioned during the lecture.

The presentation about Music Information Retrieval and the handouts can be found here als well.


~ Synchronizing Multimodal Recordings Using Audio-To-Audio Alignment - In Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces

The article titled “Synchronizing Multimodal Recordings Using Audio-To-Audio Alignment” by Joren Six and Marc Leman has been accepted for publication in the Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces. The article will be published later this year. It describes and tests a method to synchronize data-streams. Below you can find the abstract, pointers to the software under discussion and an author version of the article itself.

Synchronizing Multimodal Recordings Using Audio-To-Audio Alignment
An Application of Acoustic Fingerprinting to Facilitate Music Interaction Research

Abstract: Research on the interaction between movement and music often involves analysis of multi-track audio, video streams and sensor data. To facilitate such research a framework is presented here that allows synchronization of multimodal data. A low cost approach is proposed to synchronize streams by embedding ambient audio into each data-stream. This effectively reduces the synchronization problem to audio-to-audio alignment. As a part of the framework a robust, computationally efficient audio-to-audio alignment algorithm is presented for reliable synchronization of embedded audio streams of varying quality. The algorithm uses audio fingerprinting techniques to measure offsets. It also identifies drift and dropped samples, which makes it possible to find a synchronization solution under such circumstances as well. The framework is evaluated with synthetic signals and a case study, showing millisecond accurate synchronization.

To read the article, consult the author version of Synchronizing Multimodal Recordings Using Audio-To-Audio Alignment. The data-set used in the case study is available here. It contains a recording of balanceboard data, accelerometers, and two webcams that needs to be synchronized. The final publication is available at Springer via 10.1007/s12193-015-0196-1

The algorithm under discussion is included in Panako an audio fingerprinting system but is also available for download here. The SyncSink application has been packaged separately for ease of use.

To use the application start it with double click the downloaded SyncSink JAR-file. Subsequently add various audio or video files using drag and drop. If the same audio is found in the various media files a time-box plot appears, as in the screenshot below. To add corresponding data-files click one of the boxes on the timeline and choose a data file that is synchronized with the audio. The data-file should be a CSV-file. The separator should be ‘,’ and the first column should contain a time-stamp in fractional seconds. After pressing Sync a new CSV-file is created with the first column containing correctly shifted time stamps. If this is done for multiple files, a synchronized sensor-stream is created. Also, ffmpeg commands to synchronize the media files themselves are printed to the command line.

This work was supported by funding by a Methusalem grant from the Flemish Government, Belgium. Special thanks goes to Ivan Schepers for building the balance boards used in the case study. If you want to cite the article, use the following BiBTeX:

@article{six2015multimodal,
  author      = {Joren Six and Marc Leman},
  title       = {{Synchronizing Multimodal Recordings Using Audio-To-Audio Alignment}},
  issn        = {1783-7677},
  volume      = {9},
  number      = {3},
  pages       = {223-229},
  doi         = {10.1007/s12193-015-0196-1},
  journal     = {{Journal of Multimodal User Interfaces}}, 
  publisher   = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  year        = 2015
}

~ Audio Fingerprinting - Opportunities for digital musicology

The 27th of November, 2014 a lecture on audio fingerprinting and its applications for digital musicology will be given at IPEM. The lecture introduces audio fingerprinting, explains an audio fingerprinting technique and then goes on to explain how such algorithm offers opportunities for large scale digital musicological applications. Here you can download the slides about audio fingerprinting and its opportunities for digital musicology.

With the explained audio fingerprinting technique a specific form of very reliable musical structure analysis can be done. Below, in the figure section, an example of repetitive structure in the song Ribs Out is shown. Another example is comparing edits or versions of songs. Below, also in the figure section, the radio edit of Daft Punk’s Get Lucky is compared with the original version. Audio synchronization using fingerprinting is another application that is actively used in the field of digital musicology to align audio with extracted features.

Since acoustic fingerprinting makes structure analysis very efficiently it can be applied on a large scale (20k songs). The figure below shows that identical repetition is something that has been used more and more since the mid 1970’s. The trend probably aligns with the amount of technical knowledge needed to ‘copy and paste’ a snippet of music.

How much identical repetition is used in music, over the years

Fig: How much identical repetition is used in music, over the years.

The Panako audio fingerprinting system was used to generate data for these case studies. The lecture and this post are partly inspired by a blog post by Paul Brossier.